Human beings develop a relationship to exchange benefits and interests. Such relationships are an intrinsic condition for continuity of life, and viability of any society. Conflict or strife over resources, interests, and values are inevitable matter, and unavoidable because human’s basic needs are always increasing. Any individual intends to satisfy his/her needs, however, the resources are limited. Therefore, conflicts in human society are corollary and an axiomatic consequence of human behavior. Nonetheless, such conflicts need to be settled; otherwise, they will be an obstacle to life developing.
The world is not perfect, and resources are limited. The limitation causes conflict among competing demand, and then among competing de
manders within society. Conflict is inherent in the society, and its natural component.
A society without conflict is as Utopian conditions as government without the need for accountability. Accountability necessarily involves conflict. But, like conflict, accountability can get out of hand and destroy its own purpose leading to a stalemate and then the government is overthrown as in the democratization process in Benin and Zambia or the political stalemate in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Cameron (2).
There will be always conflicts, they are part of human nature, part of the eternal battle between good and evil. There will always be those who are preparing to use force to attain their objectives. Dictators will not suddenly become extinct species (3).
Human beings get involved in real conflicts when they lose the ability to negotiate or convince each other or one another in dialogue in order to find a solution. Then they try to use harmful alternatives such as violence to achieve such goals. This ranges from an antagonistic media campaign to mass destruction weapons.
Theories exist to explain dynamics of this phenomenon, according which we can say that a conflict theory consists of ideas and views, concepts, and logical assumptions. Assessing, and clarifying incentives, and reasons of conflict in human societies. Over and above, how they are interacting with each other. When they enter into different beneficial relationships. Also, theory explores the values, matters, and issues around which conflicts develop.
Conflict is part of human behavior. In this context series of questions pose themselves. What is a conflict? What is a civil war? What are the sources, and types of conflicts? Should measures be taken to deter them? Is there any mechanism to stimulate the concerned institutions at the early and proper time that there is a conflict in a certain place? Whenever conflict escalates and real violence goes on what is the method of resolution that can be applied? What measures and policies are to be followed after the dispute is settled. And how to build peace and eradicate the causes of the conflict? All these questions need to be answered. And we try to answer them within series of articles.
Social studies in peace and development put many definitions of conflict but the following definition, in our opinion may satisfy our target.
Conflict has been variously defined by the prominent authorities on the subject as “Perceived divergence of interest” or a situation where “Parties” current aspiration cannot be achieved simultaneously, “Problem in identifying and reaching common goals”, “incompatible or mutually exclusive goals or aims or values”, “action seeking inconsistent goals”, or “opposition between groups and individuals for or the attainment of mutually incompatible values”, or “struggle over values and claims to scares status, power and resources in which the aims of the opponents are to neutralize, injure or eliminate their rivals”. The common elements are a zero sum situation of desired items among competing drives for their possession or attainment. (4)